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  • 단양출장안마◑출장부르는법◑단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양냥이 마사지]┾[단양속초 안마방]↲단양박시연 마사지☞단양백마 안마방✉단양안마방 단속 확률⇛단양성수역 마사지➳단양발안 모텔

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    창원출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    단양출장안마⇚출장부르는법↔단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양까치산 안마방]√[단양위례 마사지]β단양인천공항 마사지▀단양video.fc2.com 마사지ヌ단양안산 조건☁단양여성전용 마사지 구인↔단양포항 양덕 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 장흥다낭 마사지 가격 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    단양출장안마☏예약금없는출장샵γ단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양안마방 녹음]﹌[단양부평 에이스 안마방]╚단양낙성대 안마방π단양호치민 호텔 마사지╇단양거제 안마방▦단양안마방 몰카 torrent✉단양하노이 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    단양출장안마┟예약금없는출장샵➡단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양안마방 청룡열차]↠[단양동네 안마방]☏단양면목동 안마방☻단양대산 마사지↔단양하동 안마방♪ 단양김해 모텔 추천☊단양임파선 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    단양출장안마➳예약금없는출장샵◁단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ 뜻]▌[단양안마방 오픈시간]☟단양출장시◑단양포르치오 마사지↾단양상해 마사지U단양동해 안마방♛단양타이마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 시흥부산 연산동 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    단양출장안마✿출장부르는법§단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양종아리 근육 마사지]→[단양신천 모텔 가격]➛단양야동 마사지┻단양거제 마사지✄단양북창동 후기✄단양출장샵♤단양목포 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    단양출장안마단양포항 양덕 마사지

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    단양출장안마↤24시출장샵⇂단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양울란바토르 마사지]⇪[단양하복대 안마방]►단양오피걸⇜단양출장서비스보장テ단양동암 마사지☺단양등 마사지↰단양동대구역 모텔

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 단양오피스텔 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 대구출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    부산마사지 서비스 airportservice.xyz 산청포항 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 원주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    단양출장안마ο24시출장샵◊단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양아침 안마방]➻[단양안마방 가성비]➠단양연수구 안마방ク단양소라넷 마사지ζ단양안마방 sex✉단양24시 마사지⇚단양안마방 도촬

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 칠곡동대구역 근처 모텔 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    단양출장안마♜24시출장샵◐단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양대전 모텔 다방]♨[단양마사지 섹스]☆단양수원 출장↙단양태국 마사지 여행▬단양노원 마사지♪단양안마방 일베└단양안산 조건 만남

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 바카라사이트 .

    의성모텔 아가씨
    태안가평 안마방 카지노사이트 의왕도봉구 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    단양출장안마↶예약┪단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양출장 만남 보증금]ホ[단양프리마호텔 마사지]▥단양가슴 커지는 마사지✍단양후쿠오카 마사지♮단양용인 안마방⇪단양호이안 마사지►단양양산 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    단양출장안마☎출장부르는법✉단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양삼산동 출장]♩[단양일산 안마방]✎단양전립선 마사지 부작용カ단양월곶 마사지ウ단양미시 마사지×단양페니스 마사지◐단양울산 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 원주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 서귀포안마방 대물 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    단양출장안마┉예약»단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양크라운제이 안마방]√[단양검암 안마방]▧단양대전 황궁 마사지的단양백마 안마방┃단양지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지❈단양안마방 짜파게티↱단양신천 모텔 가격

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    단양출장안마→예약➹단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양전지역출장마사지샵]◇[단양정자역 마사지]◦단양마사지 효능⊙단양월곶 마사지♮단양가산디지털단지역 안마방⇥단양안마방 콘돔♪단양안마방 알바 단속

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 진주처음 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 평택출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 포항출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 양평아로마 마사지 뜻 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 평택출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    단양출장안마◣예약◕단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양광명시 안마방]⇐[단양출장샵예약포항]β단양신사역 안마방┓단양마사지 자격증 종류☌단양안마방 파워배드⇡단양신림동 안마방⊙단양세부 마사지 엑스트라

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 진주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and gvya.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    단양출장안마§예약♕단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양강동 마사지]♡[단양부산 연산동 출장]▥단양구의 마사지♨단양마사지 야.동♜단양신도림 마사지☀단양강서구청 마사지✥단양대구 아로마 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    평택안마방 시간제
    원주출장안마 태백안양 안마방 후기 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    단양출장안마☜예약☠단양프리마호텔 마사지[단양출장외국인]⇩[단양남성 전용 마사지]ト단양영일대 마사지✌단양아프리카tv 마사지ο단양로미 로미 마사지 란♣단양고추 마사지✁단양손 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.단양출장안마단양아비게일 마사지χ단양아침에 안마방ⓔ[단양마사지 1인샵]단양대구 콜↣단양여관 다방α단양수내 마사지✪단양이천 안마방ロ온라인카지노예약단양판상근 마사지☻단양안마방 알바 벌금╏《단양감성마사지란》단양레즈 마사지↪단양구리 안마방★단양한국인 마사지✪단양마사지 나무위키➻단양출장안마과천서울 출장 후기단양송도 마사지☂단양수원역 안마방☼〈단양안마방 동영상〉단양안마방 중독✖단양aktkwl0단양전화 tumblr▌단양광명 안마방☢단양호치민 리버티 마사지 가격的단양신촌 안마방⇠﹛단양카메라 마사지﹜단양속초 마사지▦단양블라디보스톡 마사지↱단양안마방 러시아⇋단양오일 마사지 야동☀단양24시 마사지↾단양미시 마사지↔《단양태국 마사지 야동》단양국 안마방 초이스♨단양중앙동 안마방♮단양마사지 어플↯단양베트남 마사지▒단양향남 마사지♩단양혼자 안마방╗〈단양섹스 마사지〉단양지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지♖단양경포대 안마방☭단양출장 사기ξ단양세부 마사지✿예약금없는출장샵고양대학동 마사지출장부르는법단양흉부 마사지⊥단양천안 안마방➹[단양오목교 안마방]단양뱃살 마사지➴단양마사지 썰↠단양대구 동대구역 모텔☶단양지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지♀단양출장안마단양출장안마전주출장안마단양타이마사지 불법단양뱃살 마사지단양동대구역 여관단양남성 왁싱단양출장안마단양중국 마사지 종류♐단양안마방 경찰ζ﹛단양두정동 안마방﹜단양마사지 tumblr♩단양안마방 키스 가능¤단양안마방 시스템ღ단양김원중 안마방U의정부영등포역 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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